Bialo, Caralyn. “Popular performance, the broadside ballad, and Ophelia’s madness.” Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 53.2 (2013): 293+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.
I am most likely not going to use this source too much, but it will go very well with a different source I am using, as I explain later. This source helps me tie my use of O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night with Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The three sources I am planning to use together will help me explore the role the audience plays and the various ways that the playwright conveys where the line is between reality and illusion.
Coriat, Isador H. “The Hysteria of Lady Macbeth.” The Hysteria of Lady Macbeth. Isador H. Coriat. Moffat, Yard and Compant, 1912. Rpt. in Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Laurie Lanzen Harris and Mark W. Scott. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 1986. Literature Resource Center. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.
This source discusses Lady Macbeth’s relationship between reality and unreality. This article will help me illustrate how mental illness was represented by Shakespeare before we had an awareness of mental disorders. Coriat comments on Shakespeare’s multi-use of Lady Macbeth’s hallucinations as metaphor and her loss of sanity. With this source, I will most likely do something along the lines of Piggybacking. I will show what Coriat says (very briefly) and then expand on it. I do not plan to lean too heavily on this source, but I believe it will be useful in making my argument stronger.
Dace, Tish. “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?: Overview.” Reference Guide to American Literature. Ed. Jim Kamp. 3rd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 1994. Literature Research Center. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.
This source provides a direct link between two of my primary sources: Long Day’s Journey into Night and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf. Dace talks about how the shattering of Martha’s illusion in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf is similar to the action occurring in Long Day’s Journey into Night. He claims that, for there to be resolve, there must be a confrontation of illusion with truth. This is often what makes these works dramatic and is a common thread that I can trace through all of the works across time periods. It will also provide a nice transition from discussing one text to another for me. I believe I will most likely be doing a combination of Gaipa’s second and third strategies (Ass Kissing and Piggybacking) when dealing with this source.
Fleche, Anne. “Long Day’s Journey into Night: The Seen and the Unseen.” Mimetic Disillusion: Eugene O’Neill, Tennessee Williams, and U.S. Dramatic Realism. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1997. 25-42. Rpt. in Drama Criticism. Ed. Janet Witalec. Vol. 20. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Literature Resource Center. Web. 30 Nov. 2016
Anne Fleche claims that, in a play, reality is portrayed through the characters themselves, their actions, and (most importantly) their dialogue. Fleche writes that the characters in Eugene O’Neill’s play live in illusion and that the writing of the play is what reveals reality. The writing can simultaneously portray the illusion while showing the audience what reality is. This will be a nice tie-in to my discussion of Hamlet. I have another source which claims that Ophilia serves as that play’s connection to the reality that is the audience, and the madness of the play. Additionally, this essay discusses the “haunting” of the character’s illusions and a different source of mine (Westgate) discusses how Hamlet also makes use of this trope of “haunting” when portraying madness. For this source, and the others briefly mentioned, I will be Piggybacking, Ass Kissing, and (in a way) Playing Peacemaker. Although these sources do not disagree with each other, they do not directly agree with each other either. I will be bringing them both together and showing how they are saying, essentially, the same thing (which also happens to agree with what I am saying).
Plunka, Gene A. “Existential Despair and the Modern Neurosis: Beth Henley’s Crimes of the Heart.” Beth Henley: A Casebook. Ed. Julia A. Fesmire. New York: Routledge, 2002. 105-127. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 255. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Contemporary Literary Criticism Online. Web. 2 Dec. 2016.
This source discusses mental illness and the presence of actual, diagnosable disorders in Beth Henley’s Crimes of the Heart. This article will allow me to show just how much playwriting has changed since we have become more aware of mental illness. This article will give me a boost when I am exploring how an awareness of mental illness changes how we write and read a play. I will most likely be able to Piggyback and Leapfrog with this text.
Porter, Laurin. “Long Day’s Journey Into Night: Descent into Darkness.” The Banished Prince: Time, Memory, and Ritual in the Late Plays of Eugene O’Neill. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1988. 79-92. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Vol. 225. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Literature Resource Center. Web. 2 Dec. 2016.
Porter deals heavily with the illusion of Long Day’s Journey into Night. This source discusses the character Mary’s illusion and madness. Mary is a woman who is addicted to morphine and roams (or haunts) her house in her wedding gown. Porter analyzes this illusion and claims that Mary is constantly living in a morphine-induced memory of her wedding day (one of her few happy memories). I will most likely Leapfrog with this source. I will agree with what Porter states, however, I will point out that the only reason audiences and readers know of this illusion and madness is because of the truth, or reality, being expressed through the dialogue of other characters. The madness exists in the illusion, but that is not all. Playwrights can only show the madness for what it is if they shatter it with reality.
Roudane, Matthew Charles. “Madness.” Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?: Necessary Fictions, Terrifying Realities Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990. 37-43. Twayne’s Masterwork Studies 34. Twayne’s Authors on GVRL. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.
This source was a very beneficial discovery for me. Roudane deals directly with Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf as it relates to madness and illusion. This piece highlights how the road to Martha’s illusion was originally a coping mechanism and how she gets to her current state. Moreover, Roudane discusses Edward Albee’s (the playwright) method of showing this throughout the play such as the games the characters play, self-delusions, and lies told. This essay also has direct quotes from Albee discussing how all of the play’s action takes place in the audience and then goes on to discuss the audience’s role in the story telling which is unique to plays. This essay also talks about Hamlet which will provide me with a good transition into that text. This essay supports me completely, right down to the terminology that I am using, so I will be using a lot of Piggybacking and Ass Kissing.
Westgate, J. Chris. “Tragic Inheritance and Tragic Expression in Long Day’s Journey into Night.” Eugene O’Neill Review 30 (2008): 21-36. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literature Criticism. Ed. Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Vol. 225. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Literature Resource Center. Web. 29 Nov. 2016
This is the source that I previously mentioned using with Fleche. This source shows how Hamlet also uses this trope of “haunting” when portraying a person who is going mad. This source also discusses the relationship between reality and madness as it relates to Hamlet and Long Day’s Journey into Night. As stated before, this source will be used with other sources so the same strategies that I used with Fleche will most likely apply to Westgate as well.
The conversation happening in this ballroom diagram begins with Fleche. He is saying how the use of dialogue in plays is how playwrights can portray reality. Bialo and Westgate then respond to Fleche using motivating move #6. They both agree with Fleche and can support him using seeming insignificant details from a different play being discussed. Additionally, Porter uses motivating move #6 in the same way as Bialo and Westgate in response to Fleche, but he also uses #1. He shows how certain details concerning certain characters are not what one would expect when first looked at, however, the details in the dialogue of characters do exactly what Fleche says they should. Roudane agrees with Fleche and Dace and supports what they claim using a different text. Related to these texts, and coming into the conversation via the discussion of Shakespeare, is Coriat. Coriat points out one of the techniques used by Shakespeare to portray Lady Macbeth’s madness in Macbeth. I then have Plunka jumping into the conversation using motivating move #5 in response to Coriat. Plunka shows how much change there has been in play writing and how plays are read since we have become more aware of mental illness. If we look at the two of these works and these two sources side-by-side, we can see this large change on a small scale.