Annotated Bibliography and Ballroom Diagram

Bialo, Caralyn. “Popular performance, the broadside ballad, and Ophelia’s madness.” Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 53.2 (2013): 293+. Literature Resource Center. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.

I am most likely not going to use this source too much, but it will go very well with a different source I am using, as I explain later. This source helps me tie my use of O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night with Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The three sources I am planning to use together will help me explore the role the audience plays and the various ways that the playwright conveys where the line is between reality and illusion.


Coriat, Isador H. “The Hysteria of Lady Macbeth.The Hysteria of Lady Macbeth. Isador H. Coriat. Moffat, Yard and Compant, 1912. Rpt. in Shakespearean Criticism. Ed. Laurie Lanzen Harris and Mark W. Scott. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 1986. Literature Resource Center. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.

This source discusses Lady Macbeth’s relationship between reality and unreality. This article will help me illustrate how mental illness was represented by Shakespeare before we had an awareness of mental disorders. Coriat comments on Shakespeare’s multi-use of Lady Macbeth’s hallucinations as metaphor and her loss of sanity. With this source, I will most likely do something along the lines of Piggybacking. I will show what Coriat says (very briefly) and then expand on it. I do not plan to lean too heavily on this source, but I believe it will be useful in making my argument stronger.


Dace, Tish. “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?: Overview.” Reference Guide to American Literature. Ed. Jim Kamp. 3rd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 1994. Literature Research Center. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.

This source provides a direct link between two of my primary sources: Long Day’s Journey into Night and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf. Dace talks about how the shattering of Martha’s illusion in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf is similar to the action occurring in Long Day’s Journey into Night. He claims that, for there to be resolve, there must be a confrontation of illusion with truth. This is often what makes these works dramatic and is a common thread that I can trace through all of the works across time periods. It will also provide a nice transition from discussing one text to another for me. I believe I will most likely be doing a combination of Gaipa’s second and third strategies (Ass Kissing and Piggybacking) when dealing with this source.


Fleche, Anne. “Long Day’s Journey into Night: The Seen and the Unseen.” Mimetic Disillusion: Eugene O’Neill, Tennessee Williams, and U.S. Dramatic Realism. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1997. 25-42. Rpt. in Drama Criticism. Ed. Janet Witalec. Vol. 20. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Literature Resource Center. Web. 30 Nov. 2016

Anne Fleche claims that, in a play, reality is portrayed through the characters themselves, their actions, and (most importantly) their dialogue. Fleche writes that the characters in Eugene O’Neill’s play live in illusion and that the writing of the play is what reveals reality. The writing can simultaneously portray the illusion while showing the audience what reality is. This will be a nice tie-in to my discussion of Hamlet. I have another source which claims that Ophilia serves as that play’s connection to the reality that is the audience, and the madness of the play. Additionally, this essay discusses the “haunting” of the character’s illusions and a different source of mine (Westgate) discusses how Hamlet also makes use of this trope of “haunting” when portraying madness. For this source, and the others briefly mentioned, I will be Piggybacking, Ass Kissing, and (in a way) Playing Peacemaker. Although these sources do not disagree with each other, they do not directly agree with each other either. I will be bringing them both together and showing how they are saying, essentially, the same thing (which also happens to agree with what I am saying).


Plunka, Gene A. “Existential Despair and the Modern Neurosis: Beth Henley’s Crimes of the Heart.” Beth Henley: A Casebook. Ed. Julia A. Fesmire. New York: Routledge, 2002. 105-127. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 255. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Contemporary Literary Criticism Online. Web. 2 Dec. 2016.

This source discusses mental illness and the presence of actual, diagnosable disorders in Beth Henley’s Crimes of the Heart. This article will allow me to show just how much playwriting has changed since we have become more aware of mental illness. This article will give me a boost when I am exploring how an awareness of mental illness changes how we write and read a play. I will most likely be able to Piggyback and Leapfrog with this text.


Porter, Laurin. “Long Day’s Journey Into Night: Descent into Darkness.” The Banished Prince: Time, Memory, and Ritual in the Late Plays of Eugene O’Neill. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1988. 79-92. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Vol. 225. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Literature Resource Center. Web. 2 Dec. 2016.

Porter deals heavily with the illusion of Long Day’s Journey into Night. This source discusses the character Mary’s illusion and madness. Mary is a woman who is addicted to morphine and roams (or haunts) her house in her wedding gown. Porter analyzes this illusion and claims that Mary is constantly living in a morphine-induced memory of her wedding day (one of her few happy memories). I will most likely Leapfrog with this source. I will agree with what Porter states, however, I will point out that the only reason audiences and readers know of this illusion and madness is because of the truth, or reality, being expressed through the dialogue of other characters. The madness exists in the illusion, but that is not all. Playwrights can only show the madness for what it is if they shatter it with reality.


Roudane, Matthew Charles. “Madness.” Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?: Necessary Fictions, Terrifying Realities Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990. 37-43. Twayne’s Masterwork Studies 34. Twayne’s Authors on GVRL. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.

This source was a very beneficial discovery for me. Roudane deals directly with Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf as it relates to madness and illusion. This piece highlights how the road to Martha’s illusion was originally a coping mechanism and how she gets to her current state. Moreover, Roudane discusses Edward Albee’s (the playwright) method of showing this throughout the play such as the games the characters play, self-delusions, and lies told. This essay also has direct quotes from Albee discussing how all of the play’s action takes place in the audience and then goes on to discuss the audience’s role in the story telling which is unique to plays. This essay also talks about Hamlet which will provide me with a good transition into that text. This essay supports me completely, right down to the terminology that I am using, so I will be using a lot of Piggybacking and Ass Kissing.


Westgate, J. Chris. “Tragic Inheritance and Tragic Expression in Long Day’s Journey into Night.Eugene O’Neill Review 30 (2008): 21-36. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literature Criticism. Ed. Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Vol. 225. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Literature Resource Center. Web. 29 Nov. 2016

This is the source that I previously mentioned using with Fleche. This source shows how Hamlet also uses this trope of “haunting” when portraying a person who is going mad. This source also discusses the relationship between reality and madness as it relates to Hamlet and Long Day’s Journey into Night. As stated before, this source will be used with other sources so the same strategies that I used with Fleche will most likely apply to Westgate as well.



The conversation happening in this ballroom diagram begins with Fleche. He is saying how the use of dialogue in plays is how playwrights can portray reality. Bialo and Westgate then respond to Fleche using motivating move #6. They both agree with Fleche and can support him using seeming insignificant details from a different play being discussed. Additionally, Porter uses motivating move #6 in the same way as Bialo and Westgate in response to Fleche, but he also uses #1. He shows how certain details concerning certain characters are not what one would expect when first looked at, however, the details in the dialogue of characters do exactly what Fleche says they should. Roudane agrees with Fleche and Dace and supports what they claim using a different text. Related to these texts, and coming into the conversation via the discussion of Shakespeare, is Coriat. Coriat points out one of the techniques used by Shakespeare to portray Lady Macbeth’s madness in Macbeth. I then have Plunka jumping into the conversation using motivating move #5 in response to Coriat. Plunka shows how much change there has been in play writing and how plays are read since we have become more aware of mental illness. If we look at the two of these works and these two sources side-by-side, we can see this large change on a small scale.


  1. Hi, Caitlin! You’re really starting to establish the scholarly conversation here. You have a nice amount of sources that speak to the line between illusion and reality that is broken within each play that you’re discussing. I especially like your statement that “Playwrights can only show the madness for what it is if they shatter it with reality.” If you can, use this statement or idea somewhere! I have a few questions though: Are you focusing on the instances of the breaking of illusion/or reality in the plays and how they are similar, or are you looking into the writing methods that are used to create similar scenes? Similarly, are you writing about the plays or the playwrights? If the latter, I think that finding some interviews with the modern playwrights would be helpful, and maybe some information on mental illness from Shakespeare’s time. I only know briefly that people used to visit asylums for entertainment; I don’t really know about their concepts of illusion and reality, and what informed Shakespeare as he included mental illness in his piece. Also, it’s interesting to think how Hamlet (according to some) decided to act mentally ill. Was that what people thought about the illness? I really don’t know much about that, so maybe that would help as well! (That’s kind of what I’m doing too, seeing what informed these writers as they constructed their pieces.) It seems like “Madness” is really one of your central articles that you’ll use and, since it’s based on Virginia Woolf, maybe you could use Woolf as a hub and compare the other pieces to the strategies (or situations) to it? Or you could go in chronological order. Up to you! I think it would also help to find more sources for Crimes of the Heart if you decide to write about that play. I am also interested in how you’ll use the plays themselves in your paper. Will you interact with the text yourself, present your argument within the scholarly conversation only, or both? I’m also interested in hearing more about your position within these articles and how you’re making something new. We can definitely discuss this! Perhaps finding a theory piece would help as well. I’m not sure which theory exactly, maybe something about playwriting, or writing about madness– but I think that a general article would help you apply that theory to the plays and add something new that way as well, and it would also give you a clearer method of how to break down your paper into arguable pieces instead of just play by play. Your ballroom diagram is great, too! As we work on our projects, I’m looking forward to finding out exactly what you’d say if you were in that ballroom too. Good job!

  2. Caitlin I really like all your sources! They seem to connect together very easily and carry out your running idea. I do agree with Michelle; I am curious as to whether you are going to focus on the idea of mental illness in the theater, or, more specifically, how mental illness has changed overtime in the theater from Shakespearean to contemporary. I know you mentioned in class also about how behavior and consciousness changes when you read the play rather than watch the performance, will you tie mental illness into that? Is it possible to do all?! You definitely have a lot of options! A source for each play is definitely great to back up each work you are using while adding more power to your thesis. Plunka’s article sounds interesting to me, I like how it has a focus more on mental illness in general, I think that will be a great source. I think it’s safe to say mental illness will be carried out through the paper, perhaps it’s an idea to split your some plays into the performances and the others into playwrights and tie madness into each side? That may be difficult, I am just thinking out loud, but I think your really narrowing down your thoughts to something great!

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